Who are you? Can you tell us something about yourself?

My name is Prof. Dr. Alfons Khoukaz , I am a physicist at the Institutfür Kernphysik of the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität in Münster,Germany. I am working mainly on experiments in hadron physics and especially on meson physics at the experiments ANKE and WASA-at-COSY. Both experiments are situated at the COSY storagering at the Forschungszentrum Jülich. Additionally my working group is strongly involved in the future PANDA experiment at the accelerator centrum FAIR in Darmstadt.

You are leading an activity within the HP3 project – which are thescientifically exciting aspects of your research project?

In the exciting field of hadron physics experiments, particle beams are accelerated to velocities close to the speed of light and shot onto targets to study the fundamental forces in our universe. The success of these experiments depends the quality of the used targets. It is therefore very important to develop dedicated target devices optimized for the different scientific goals of the experiments. This joint research activity FutureJet (WP20) is aimed to investigate the production mechanism of such target beams and to improve the performance of the corresponding cryogenically cooled beam sources which are used to produce these target beams. In this project three different types of these sources are used, namely cluster-jet beam sources, cryogenic micro-jet sources, and pellet beam sources. All three different sources have different production mechanisms which are not yet fully understood and challenging to investigate.

Who are the participants to your project?

This joint research activity consist of senior scientists and bachelor, master, and PhD students from several universities and research institutes in five countries. The participating institutes are:- Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN) in Genoa, Italy- Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften (OeAW) in Vienna, Austria- Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in Jülich, Germany- GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany- Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität (GUF) in Frankfurt am Main, Germany- Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität (WWU) in Münster, Germany- Narodowe Centrum Badan Jadrowych (NCBJ) in Warsaw, Poland- Uppsala universitet in Uppsala (UU), Sweden

What do you want to achieve with this activity?

The main goal of this European activity is to perform significant further developments on the science and technology of cryogenically cooled beam sources. In case of the cluster-jet beam sources this includes detailed studies on the production of intense cluster-jet beams with respect to further increase of the target density and the minimization of the gas load into the vacuum chambers of the storage ring. Additionally the properties ofthe produced clusters like velocity or mass distribution will be investigated which can provide insight into the cluster formation process. Furthermore the production of new nozzles and the influence of the nozzle parameters should be investigated both experimentally and in calculations. Using the cryogenic micro-jet source systematic studies of the interaction between the produced droplets with ion beams at a storagering are performed in order to improve the cooling of the ion beam. For the pellet target the production of pellet streams with small (< 10 µm)pellets and high repetition rates of up to 150 kHz should be investigated. Furthermore the pellet tracking system should be optimized with the aim to achieve a pellet detection efficiency close to 100%.

In which way your activity could be of benefit for the society?

This international activity brings together specialists from different countries and allows for a close cooperation of the participating institutes.This concentration of knowledge clearly supports the European high technology on internal targets. The achieved progress and gained scientific results will be published in publicly accessible reports and publications, so that this information on new technologies is freely available for the whole society. The results will be of interest for otherfields of science and technology, e.g., for the application in laser interaction studies. Altogether this will make the study of science andespecially the study of science in Europe highly attractive for young people.

Why do you think a young person should choose to study science and is there any reason for which should they do so in Europe?

Although science has a long history, especially in Europe, there are many important questions which are still unsolved and will challenge further generations of scientists. With its large research centres and highly distinguished universities Europe plays a leading role in the investigation of these open questions and will do so in the future.Therefore it provides an ideal learning environment for young students and rich opportunities for senior scientists.

The HadronPhysics3 project is supported by the European Union
under the 7th Framework Capacities Programme in the area of Research Infrastructures (RI).